Glossary

 

Adaptive Capacity: The ability of institutions, systems, and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences

Administrative Law Judges: “Hearings officers” who work within administrative agencies, engaging in regulatory actions that give rise to many disputes (environmental regulations, labor/management actions under collective bargaining agreements, compensation for damages incurred from state government action on one’s property, etc.)

Administrative Rules: Rules and regulations issued by state executive branches

Amenities: Something that conduces one to comfort and convenience; a luxury.

Anthropocentric Concerns: A philosophical perspective that views human needs and interests as of the highest value and importance—contrasting with various biocentric (life-centered) perspectives, which assume that nonhumans are also carriers of value.

At-Risk Youth: Population of children and teenagers who are considered especially vulnerable and engage in activities that might put expose them to far-reaching negative consequences

Baby Boomers: A term used for a person who was born between 1946 and 1964 that makes up approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population.

Balanced Budget: A budget is balanced when governmental expenditures are equivalent to revenues

Bio-Equity: Advocates for equal treatment of individuals in human society and the other elements of the “biosphere”

Block Grants: Broad grants to states for certain activities—welfare, child care, education, social services, preventive health care, and health services

Broker Parties: Political parties trying to appeal to the largest number of people, more concerned with gaining votes than with maintaining rigid ideologies, and willing to alter policies in order to gain

Brown v. Board of Education: A landmark case where the court ruled that separate schools for black and white children were unconstitutional

Brown v. Board of Education II: A court decision in 1955 conferring the responsibility on local school authorities and the courts for implementing the principles of integrating public school students as stated in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision

Brundtland Report: The common name for the Our Common Future report created by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) and published in 1987. The Report is deemed the origin of sustainability and sustainable development, and laid the groundwork for the convening of the 1992 Earth Summit.

Bureaucracy: A governmental organization characterized by adherence to fixed rules, specialization of functions, hierarchy of authority

Bureaucratic Capacity: The ability of government agencies to attract and retain professional to bureaucratic positions that requires public agencies to be relatively well-funded, professional in operation, and effectively organized

Categorical Grants: Congress-appropriated funds for a specific purpose, such as school lunches or for building airports and highways; subject to detailed federal conditions, often on a matching basis

Caucus: A meeting, in particular a meeting of people whose goal is political or organizational change

Certiori: A writ of superior court to call up the records of an inferior court or a body acting in a quasi-judicial capacity

Charter Schools: Public schools that can operate with fewer regulations that apply to traditional public schools

Checks and Balances: When the three branches of government share power rather than allowing one branch to have substantial power over the others

Citizen Groups: Organized groups advocating for specific public policycivil libertarian approach (criminal justice): ideology emphasizing the rights of individuals accused of crimes and advocating treatment and rehabilitation programs

Civil Service: Refers to government or federal employment

Classical Liberalism: A political philosophy placing high value on individual freedom based on a belief in natural rights that exist independent of government

Clean Air Act: The law defining EPA’s responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation’s air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer; this legislation authorized the development of comprehensive federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both stationary (industrial) sources and mobile sources; the adoption of this very important legislation occurred at approximately the same time as the National Environmental Policy Act that established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Clean Water Act: Based on the Federal Water Pollution Control Act from 1972, the Clean Water Act (CWA)—named in 1977—establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained.

Closed Primary: A primary wherein only persons who are registered members of a political party can vote using the ballot of that political party

Collaborative Governance: The move to share bureaucratic decision-making power with citizens and personnel in the lower reaches of organizational hierarchies, to embrace public-private collaborative partnerships, and to reform rule structures and hierarchy for efficiency

Common Law: Is a system of legal principles established on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws; may be codified into a statute or overruled by a statute passed by the government

Community Policing: Movement to connect police with citizens, emphasizing problem-solving methodologies and partnerships, and building policies to identify current and future problems

Competitive Grant: Grant proposal in which the applicant designs a project and a funding agency ranks the proposals to provide grant awards in a competitive process.

Constitutional Convention: The most traditional method to propose a new state constitution or revise an existing constitution, the initiation of which requires a formal call from the legislature, which all 50 state legislatures and the District of Columbia have the ability to do

Constitutional Democracy: A system of government functioning with the belief that government can and should be legally limited in its powers, and that its rightful exercise of authority depends on observing these limitations

Constituency Service: The assistance given to constituents by Members of Congress in non-legislative areas

Cooperative Federalism: Concept of federalism where federal, state, and local governments are integrated to act cooperatively, solving common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally, or clashing over a policy in a system dominated by the national government

Cooperative Governance: (See Collaborative Governance)

County Service Area: Local government unit that provide minimum public services such as police protection, library facilities, and television translator services

Commission Government: City government that divides the responsibilities of the municipality among council members; each commissioner held executive power over a major public works department (e.g., water, sanitation, and roads)

Communitarism: A political philosophy emphasizing the need to balance individual rights and interests with that of the community, positing that individuals are shaped by the culture and values of their communities

Confederal Systems: System of government where the states operate as a sovereign government and the legislature of any one state can set its own laws independently of any other state

Democracy Versus Technocracy Quandary: Arising due to rapid technological innovation in the United States where many policy problems are highly technical in nature and require scientific knowledge to manage effectively; this “quandary” questions whether the authority of those with specialized technical knowledge will supplant the democratic process of decision-making

Dependent (Special) Districts: A type of special district with a population of residents occupying a specific geographic area, featuring a legal governing authority, maintaining a legal identity separate from any other governmental authority, possessing the power to assess a tax for the purpose of supplying public services, and exercising autonomy

Developed Community: A community intentionally planned with specific goals for function in mind; developed communities can be freestanding homes, condominiums or apartment complexes

Dillon’s Rule: State-national government power relations are embedded in the U.S. Constitution, granting the states almost unlimited authority aside from limitations imposed by the Constitution and resulting federal statute; in terms of state-local power relations, Dillon argued that states create local government and hold supreme power over local governments

Dual Federalism: Concept of federalism positing that the Constitution allows a limited list of powers to the national government, leaving the rest to the sovereign states; each level of government is dominant within its own sphere; the Supreme Court serves as the mediator between the national government and the states

Dual System (Judicial Power): The system of separate state and federal courts that make up the judicial system

E-Democracy: Technological innovation where government uses the Internet to engage citizens in the policy-making process through electronic voting technologies, electronic information exchange, and online forums

E-Government: The use of information technology to provide and improve government services, transactions and interactions with citizens, businesses, and between branches of the government; this technological development has also been referred to as “on-line government,” and “transformational government”

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA): Provision that aids low income and disadvantaged children through the distribution of federal funds to state and local educational systems

Elite Challenging Politics: Political action aimed at creating change through challenging the powerful elite through direct action such as demonstrations, petitions, and boycotts

Elite Theory: The theory that political power is held by a small and wealthy group of people sharing similar values and interests and mostly coming from relatively similar privileged backgrounds; the power elite can effectively dictate the main goals for policy making by virtue of their control over the economic resources of the major business and financial organizations in the country

Eminent Domain: The law by which the government can appropriate private property

Endangered Species Act: Enacted in 1973, this act provides for the conservation of ecosystems upon which threatened and endangered species of fish, wildlife, and plants depend.

Engaged Citizenship: A type of citizenship where members of a community take a more active role in matters of social welfare

Every Student Succeeds Act: Replaced the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act in 2015 that supports local evidenced-based and place-based K-12 education initiatives.

Excise Tax: Taxes related to consumer consumption behavior, these comprise sales taxes, motor fuel taxes, cigarette taxes, and distilled spirits taxes

Fiscal Federalism: In public economics, refers to how the central government applies grants and payments to lower levels of government

Flat Rate Tax: A single tax rate regardless of income level

Formula Grant: Grant given to a state or local government to accomplish a national policy goal adopted by Congress

Gated Community: A developed community with a few common characteristics: physical barriers to entry and movement, the privatization and communal control of public spaces, and privatization of public services such as trash removal and police forces

General Jurisdiction Courts: Courts that deal with both civil and criminal cases, and whose jurisdiction is based on geographical area

General Purpose Government: Responsible for a wide range of public services including counties, parishes and manipulates (cities, towns, villages, townships); can be contrasted with special purpose governments (or special districts), such as school districts, water districts and transit districts

Gentrification: The transformation occurring neighborhoods that includes the renewal and rebuilding of deteriorating areas and the displacement of low-income residents living in inexpensive housing with high-income residents living in high cost housing

Gerrymandering: The process whereby district lines are redrawn to maximize the strength of the majority party and weaken the minority party

Glass Ceiling: An intangible barrier within an organization that prevents minorities or women from advancing to upper-level positions

Globalization: The current worldwide expansion of economic markets through trade and financial flows, and the transfer of culture and technology

Governance (see also “Collaborative” and “Cooperative” governance)

Graduated Tax: Tax rate based on percentage of income where those with higher income pay higher taxes

Grutter v. Bollinger: U.S. Supreme Court case upholding the University of Michigan Law School’s affirmative action policy, deciding that race can be one of several factors considered when making admission decisions because it furthers “…the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body”

Head Start Program: A pre-school program for young disadvantaged children with the stated purpose of getting these children ready for the rigors of the first grade

Higher Order Needs: Theory developed by Abraham Maslow related to motivation showing how when lower needs such as physiological, safety, love/belonging are met, higher needs such as esteem and, finally, self-actualization become attainable

Home Rule: The power of a local city or county that is granted by states limited—and reversible—to independently create and manage policy at the local level

Independent (Special) Districts: A type of special district that includes more than one county

Individualistic Political Culture: Problems are seen in terms of individual solutions — communal solutions are not highly valued; this school of thought emphasizes the conception of the democratic order as a marketplace, in which government is instituted for strictly utilitarian reasons, to handle those functions demanded by the people it is created to serve

Initiative: A form of direct democracy by which a petition signed by a minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance

Institutional Actors: The subjects including legislative bodies, executive departments, and the judicial branch involved in the public policy process are governments and governmental agencies that deal with public affairs

Institutional Resiliency: The ability of institutions to withstand or react to major stressors without crossing a threshold to a situation with different structure or outputs

Integration of Powers: A political system, such as in a parliamentary system, where the executive and legislative branches are integrated

International City/County Management Association: Professional association started in 1914 to provide professional support and research for cities and counties

Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA): Directly related to federalism and multi-state arrangements within the American federal system, this term refers to national-state or national-local agreements or inter-state and inter-local agreements of various kinds

Jacksonian Democracy: A political philosophy promoting the strength of the executive branch of government over the legislative branch, while also seeking to broaden the public’s participation in government

Judicial Federalism: Refers to the allocation of power between federal courts and state courts, where state courts address their own state’s constitutional claims first in a case, and only consider federal constitutional claims when cases can not be resolved on state grounds (the increased influence of states’ constitutions within their judicial system, particularly in regards to civil rights.)

Law and Order Approach (Criminal Justice): Ideology emphasizing the protection of public order through close monitoring of conduct and severe punishment on proven criminals

LEED: Leadership in Environment and Energy Design is an ecology-oriented building certification program run under the name U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC); there are five key areas of environmental and human health: energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, materials selection, sustainable site development, and water savings; LEED focuses on these five areas

Legislative Oversight: The legislature’s review and evaluation of selected activities of the executive branch, and the responsibility of developing the state budget

Legislative Referral: Action by the legislature and the governor that places the legislation on the ballot for voters to decide approval or disapproval

Lifelong Learning: The continual acquisition of knowledge and skills throughout one’s life

Line Item Veto: Power of an executive to strike or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. Subject to the legislative override.

Linkage Mechanisms: How institutions and the associated governmental processes affect the lives of citizens

Mandate of Court: An authorization to act given to a representative

Master Agree (Tobacco Agreement): Settlement agreement from 1998 with the tobacco industry where tobacco companies agreed to compensate for some medical costs associated with the effects of smoking-related illnesses as well as to curtail the production of tobacco products

McDonaldization Effect: The phenomenon of international homogenization in culture, life styles, and technology that accompanies globalization first coined by George Ritzer, whose own ideas of “McDonaldization” and “hyperrationality” came from the theories of Max Weber

Medicaid: A national-state cooperative health care plan designed to serve the medical service needs of low-income individuals and families

Medicare: National plan providing for the health care needs of individuals 65 years of age or older; the three major components include: hospital insurance, medical insurance, and prescription drug assistance

Merit-Based Performance (Civil Service): System of pay where compensation is dependent on the performance of employees

Memorandum of Understanding: An agreement between two parties in the form of a legal document, which can define partnerships between departments or agencies

Merit System of Judicial Appointment (see “Missouri Plan”)

Missionary Party: Rather ideological in orientation, these parties enter elections with a “manifesto” or “platform” to be undertaken; these parties tend to maintain a high degree of control over membership and carefully monitor who is allowed to make use of the party label as a candidate

Missouri Plan: Complex system for judicial appointment that was designed to combine methods of appointment with election; under the provision of the Missouri Plan, candidates for judicial vacancies are reviewed by independent, bipartisan commissions of lawyers and prominent lay citizens prior to selection by a governor. An election for retention of the judge is put to voters after one year of the judge’s service

Moralistic Political Culture: Problems are seen in terms of community dilemmas that must be identified through interchange and community choice; this school of thought emphasizes the commonwealth conception as the basis for democratic government, whose responsibility it is to promote the general welfare

Multi-Member District: A multimember district is an electoral district returning more than one member to a representative assembly

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA): One of the first environmental laws ever written, NEPA requires federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of proposed federal projects which could significantly affect the environment

Neo-Liberalism: This political view promoting the importance of economic growth, free market and free trade, and reduced government regulation of the economy; it asserts that social justice occurs with minimum interference by the government and by the forces of the free market

Network Approach: A system of organizing where there are multiple dimensions of interaction, few fixed bureaucratic relationships, and communication organizes itself at one point in time around a hub of positions or of knowledge — i.e., the persons or organizations that possess or control relevant knowledge

New Deal Era: Economic reform package initiated by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s that sought to relieve the effects of the Great Depression through reforming of financial and business practices and aid to the unemployed

No Child Left Behind (NCLB): Federal educational act created to improve the performance of schools using standard-based reform to measure goal attainment in primary and secondary public school

Non-Institutional Actors: Individuals or groups independent of the government and involved in the policy process, including political parties, interest groups, social movements, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the mass media, and individual citizens

Nonpartisan Offices: Offices where elected candidates run for office without listing a political affiliation and generally held for local government offices such as for school districts, local special districts, judicial and boards and commissions

Northern Spotted Owl v. Hodel: A famous case in favor of preserving an endangered species over the continuation of timber harvesting;  this case is considered a landmark decision in social and environmental justice through governmental action

Open Primary: Primary elections where voters may cast a vote on a ballot of any part and do not need to be members of a specific political party in order to vote for that party’s candidates

Ordinances: An authoritative decree or law set forth by governmental authority

Oregon System: A system of government where voters are able to initiate and vote upon statutes or constitutional revisions

Organizational Culture: Underlying values, beliefs, and ways of interacting that contribute to the psychological and social environment of an organization.

Parliamentary Style Systems: Common legislative form using the integration of powers and where the legislative branch chooses the prime minister or president

Patronage: The power to make appointments to government jobs especially for political advantage

Performance-Based Budgeting: Process for budgeting that links requests for resources with documentation illustrating the outcomes of budget choices made in previous years

Pivotal Variable: The focal point upon which other variables depends

Plessy v. Ferguson: The 1896 U.S. Supreme Court case ruling that “separate but equal” public facilities were consistent with the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; the Supreme Court’s ruling meant that racial segregation is acceptable so long as the services provided by government for different races were basically comparable

Pluralist Theory: An ideal-type democratic theory positing that American democratic political process is genuinely open to the involvement of any group that wishes to participate; some of the fundamental constitutional principles embedded in the U.S. Constitution (freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom to petition government for the redress of grievances) constitute core elements of pluralist theory

Point Sources: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines point source pollution as a single identifiable source of pollution that is discharged from a pipe, factory, ship, smokestack ditch, etc.

Political Culture: Attitudes, values and beliefs about a political system

Political Trust: The expectation of a citizen that the rules and practices derived from public institutions are fair and unbiased; that the performance of a political institution competent and appropriate; and that rules and procedures encourage innovation and produce outcomes that improve governance and society

Politicization of Courts/Judiciary: The perception that courts function politically and ideologically in decision-making rather than objectively

Pork Barrel: Refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are not necessarily economically viable but pursued because of their appeal and benefit to particular constituents

Postindustrial Society: A society where the resources of labor and capital have been replaced by knowledge and information as the main sources of wealth creation by a shift in focus from manufacturing industries to service industries and is enabled by technological advances

Post-Materialist Needs: A phenomena occurring due to the new wealth accumulated in advanced societies where priorities have shifted from survival to a focus on well-being, self-expression, and quality of life

Presidential Style Systems: Common legislative form using the separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches

Price Subsidies: Financial assistance granted by the government to a certain person or group whose actions are regarded as being in the public interest

Primary Election: A preliminary election where voters nominate candidates for office

Professionals: Individuals who are carrying out specialized tasks requiring specialized training and/or targeted experience

Progressive Era: Period during the late 19th and early 20th century that sought to mediate changes brought on by the industrial revolution through economic, political, social, and moral reform

Progressivism: A political and social term that refers to ideologies and movements favoring or advocating progress, changes, improvement, or reform

Proportional Representation: Legislative seats are proportionally distributed based on the percentage of the vote a particular party wins

Protest Politics: Form of activism where the contemporary grassroots citizen organizations and social movements participate in activities such as demonstrations and boycotts to assert political will

Public Goods: Refers to economics where the consumption of a good by one individual does not reduce availability of the good for consumption by others; and where no one can be effectively excluded from using the good

Public Interest Groups: Interest groups promote issues of general public concern (e.g., environmental protection, human rights, and consumer rights)

Recidivism: A tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior

Red Tape: Colloquial term referring to the forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, often seen as overly complicated an unnecessary

Referendum: A specific measure put to the voters by the legislature for approval or disapproval

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke: Case where the Supreme Court ruled that inflexible quota systems in affirmative action were not permissible under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment of the constitution; in the same decision the Court upheld the legality of affirmative action in special cases

Reinventing Government: The move of state and local administrators to reorganize to achieve efficiency, better programs, better use of resource, and the input of state-level interests, private sector groups, and the general public

Renewable Energy Portfolios:  A requirement that state utilities obtain a certain percentage or output (measured in kilowatt-hours) of their power supply from renewable energy sources; RPSs (renewable energy portfolio standards) are benchmarks for the portion of energy used by state consumers that must be supplied by renewable sources

Republican Government: Within this system of government there is separation of powers, divided up by executive, legislative and judicial powers; additionally, government responsibilities can be centralized at one level of government, or they may be decentralized among multiple layers

Reserved Powers: Based on the 10th Amendment, a provision of the constitution which holds that all governmental powers not explicitly granted to the national government in the constitution are reserved to the states and their people

Scientific Division of Labor:  Careful analysis of subtasks that, in a coordinated effort, combine to achieve complex and ambitious goals

Select Committees: A temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose

Sine Ira Ac Studio: Ruthless pursuit of effectiveness and efficiency without regard to personal favor or sympathy

Single Member District: The most common electoral system in the United States used to elect House members and many state and local officials; each district votes on one person to represent them in a legislative body

Single Purpose Governments: Latter carries out a specific function such as education, the provision of utilities, the irrigation of farmlands, or the provision of transportation services, for example

Smart Growth: A theory for urban growth and planning that attempts to concentrate growth in the center of a city, thereby avoiding urban sprawl

Social Capital: The values and norms held by citizens that reflect trust in others, the active pursuit of engagement in networks of interpersonal relations of a wide variety, and standards of interchange among people involving the principles of reciprocity (return a favor with a favor) and mutual respect

Social Movements: Group action characterized by focus on a specific political or social issue by individuals who share a common outlook on society and organized to cause social change

Social Safety Net: Includes government programs that support low-income Americans

Social Trust: Relates to the ways in which people interact with one another, publicly and privately, and rests on the belief that others are act with honesty, integrity and reliability of others

Standing Committee: A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area

State Children’s Insurance Program (S-CHIP): A state program, cooperatively managed at the state and federal level, intended to meet the health care needs of uninsured middle- and low-income children

Strong Mayor-Council: A form of local government consisting of both an elected executive branch and a legislative branch, where one of the most significant powers afforded the mayor is that of budget director

Sunset Provision (or Clause): A provision in a statute that terminates or repeals all or portions of the law after a specific date, unless further legislative action is taken to extend it

Sustainable Community-Based Eldercare: Community-based provision for the needs of elderly residents that seeks to maintain a community’s retired population by providing for them within the community

Supremacy Clause: The clause establishing the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land, mandating that state judges uphold them, even if state laws or constitutions conflict

Sustainability: The manner in which the social, economic, institutional, and environmental needs of a community are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; meeting the present needs of a community without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education: Supreme Court case ruling that local education districts across the nation use mandatory busing as a policy to achieve racial integration in their schools

Task Force: A temporary group formed to work on a special defined task or activity

Tax and Expenditure Limitation Measures (TELs): Limits on the amount of revenue that can be collected without the excess having to be refunded to taxpayers

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF): Formerly known as welfare, TANF provides cash assistance to families with dependent children

Tenure: A status of seniority granted after a trial period

Term Limits: In many states, constitutional term limits control the number of terms – consecutive or otherwise – which a legislator is allowed to serve

Three Strikes Laws: State statute requiring a mandatory and extended sentence to criminals of serious offenses convicted three or more times

Traditionalistic Political Culture: School of thought that accepts government as an actor with a positive role in the community, but limiting that role to securing the continued maintenance of the existing social order; in this system, political parties are not important, but rather, political competition is expressed through factions, an extension of the personal politics characteristic of the system their activity, although not necessarily by direct pecuniary gain

Trial Courts: The courts in which most civil or criminal cases begin

Two Party Systems: Refers to a government in which the same two political parties are nearly always elected to dominate the political process and where one party will hold the majority in the legislature

Unconstitutional Taking: Taking of private property by government without just compensation

Unemployment Compensation: Money that substitutes for lost wages or salary due to unemployment under a program administered by a government

Unfunded Mandate: Requirement imposed by Congress on state or local governments with no funding to pay for it

User Fees: Fee charged for public service or facility

Voucher System: The option within the educational system for parents to receive a predetermined amount of money (depending on the state) to cover student tuition at a school of choice

Weak Mayor-Council: Form of local government where the mayoralty is a ceremonial position; executive leadership is a cooperative effort on the part of the entire city council, which collectively decides and approves appointments; the budget is a collegial endeavor and the mayor is just one of the council members involved in the budgeting process

Welfare Reform Act, 1996: Public assistance as focused less on the individual recipient of the benefit than it is the community as a whole and requiring work in exchange for temporary relief; a limit of two years to be used before parents would be working or in job training; additionally, no recipient could have more than five years of assistance cumulatively

Welfare-To-Work Program: Social program instituted in 2004 seeking to encourage those on public assistance to return to work rather than depend on income support

Whole Building Design: Holistic building design with the building’s purpose, workforce, future, and operations and maintenance costs taken as a comprehensive whole

Xeriscape Design: Landscaping to maximize water efficiency; xeriscape practices include: good planning and design, practical lawn areas, efficient irrigation, soil improvement, use of mulches, and native plants

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State and Local Government and Politics: Prospects for Sustainability (2nd Ed.) by Christopher A. Simon, Brent S. Steel & Nicholas P. Lovrich is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.