Index

A

Abella, Sally

acceleration: peak horizontal acceleration; strong-motion instrument

accretionary wedge

Adams, John

Adel, Oregon, Earthquakes of 1968

aftershocks; aftershock or foreshock? See also foreshock

Alaska, Gulf of, Earthquake of 1964; liquefaction accompanying; tectonic subsidence; tsunami accompanying, see tsunami

Allen, Clarence

Allen, Richard

anticline

Archuleta, Ralph

asteroid impact probability

asthenosphere

Astoria Submarine Canyon and Channel

Atwater, Brian

B

Bakun, Bill

Barberopoulou, Aggeliki

basalt. See also Columbia River Basalt

base isolation

Basin and Range

Beeson, Marvin

Bellevue, Washington, earthquake program

benchmark, survey

Bend, Oregon, faults

Benioff zone earthquakes. See slab earthquakes

Bentley, Bob

Blakely, Rick

Blanco Fracture Zone

Bonneville Landslide

Bourgeois, Joanne

Bradley Lake, Oregon

Brady, Brian

bridges, damage to

British Columbia earthquake programs

brittle-ductile transition

brittle fracture

brittle structures

Brocher, Tom

Browning, Iben

Bruer, Wes

Bucknam, Bob

building codes; increased cost for earthquake strengthening; International Building Code; lives vs. property protection; National Building Code of Canada. See also Uniform Building Code; California building codes; Oregon Structural Specialty Code

buried forests and marshes. See Cascadia Subduction Zone

Burns, Scott

buttress

C

California Alquist-Priolo Act

California building codes. See also building codes

California Geological Survey (formerly Division of Mines and Geology); Strong Motion Instrumentation Program

California Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program

California Earthquake Authority

California Office of Emergency Services: Disaster Office; California Seismic Safety Commission

California Seismic Mapping Act

Caltrans

Campbell, Newell

Canadian government-sponsored earthquake research. See also Geological Survey of Canada; Pacific Geoscience Centre

Cape Mendocino Earthquake of 1992. See Petrolia Earthquake

Carson, Bob

Carver, Deborah

Carver, Gary

Cascade volcanoes

Cascadia deep-sea channel

Cascadia Earthquake of A.D. 1700; tsunami

Cascadia earthquakes, pre-A.D. 1700

Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup

Cascadia Subduction Zone; acceleration due to earthquake on, 195-97, 216; deterministic forecast on; eastward-convex arch; insurance against, 234; marsh evidence for earthquakes; probabilistic forecast on

Central Nevada Seismic Zone

Chelan, Washington, Earthquake of 1951

Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake of 1999

Chile Earthquake of 1960; tsunami in Japan

chimney damage

China, earthquake predictions

Coalinga Earthquake of 1983

Coast Range

Cocos Plate

Columbia River Basalt

Community Internet Intensity Map

connection failure

Continental shelf

Coos Bay, Oregon, buried marshes

Copalis River, Olympic Peninsula

Coppersmith, Kevin

Corvallis Fault

COSMOS

Creager, Ken

Crescent City, California, tsunami of 1964

cripple wall

critical facility

Crosson, Robert

crust of the Earth; continental crust; oceanic crust; brittle crust; ductile crust

D

Dam, Van Norman

Darrington-Devils Mountain Fault

Deming, Washington, Earthquake of 1990

Denali, Alaska, Earthquake of 2002

design of large structures: base isolation; bridges and overpasses; special problems

disclosure requirements

Dragert, Herb

duck, cover, and hold

ductile deformation

ductile structures

Duvall, Washington, Earthquake of 1996

E

earthquake hazard maps; in California; of Oregon cities; of Seattle and Olympia; of Victoria, BC

earthquakes: characteristic; cluster; control of; drills; education; implementation and outreach; interaction among faults; loss of market share due to; media response to; precursors; preparedness for; recurrence of; resistance to, for large buildings; slow earthquakes;

earthquake engineering; engineering geologist; Earthquake Engineering Research Institute; performance-based

East Pacific Rise

elasticity; elastic deformation; elastic rebound

Ellsworth, Bill

epicenter

excavations across faults

Explorer Plate; earthquakes in

Explorer Ridge

F

Fairweather, Alaska, Earthquake and landslide of 1958

Farallon Plate

Faris, Roger

fault: blind; dip-slip; displacement; fault-plane solution; fault map of Oregon; normal; reverse; strike-slip; surface rupture; thrust; transform. See also slip rate on faults

Federal Response Plan

FEMA. See U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency

Filson, John

floods of 1996

focus; focal depth

footwall

forecasting, earthquake; deterministic; probabilistic; probability forecast for San Francisco Bay region; time of increased [earthquake] probability

foreshock

foundation, bolting to

fracture zones

Fraser River Delta

G

Geller, Robert

geodesy

geologic time

Geological Survey of Canada

geotechnical engineering

glacial ice caps; lowered sea level because of

Global Positioning System (GPS); Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA); Western Canada Deformation Array

Goldfinger, Chris

Gorda Plate; earthquakes in

Gorda Ridge

Gower, Howard

grading ordinances. See also Uniform Building Code

granite

Grant, Wendy

Greece, earthquake prediction

Griffin, Wally

Griggs, Gary

ground displacement, engineering against

Gulf of California spreading center

Gutenberg-Richter relationship; for Puget Sound-Georgia Strait region

H

Hanford Nuclear Reservation; Basalt Waste Isolation Project

hanging wall

Harris, Ruth

hazard; vs. peril; vs. risk

Heaton, Tom

Hebgen Lake, Montana, Earthquake and landslide of 1959

Heceta Bank, Oregon

Hemphill-Haley, Eileen

Hemphill-Haley, Mark

highway leveling

Holocene

home retrofit against earthquakes; preparedness

Hope, B.C., landslide of 1965

hospitals, damage to

Humboldt Bay, California

Hull, Don

Hurricanes: Andrew; Isabel

hydrophone arrays. See T-phase waves

Hyndman, Roy

hypocenter. See focus

I

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology

Indian Earthquake of 1897

Indians. See Native Americans

inertia

Institute of Building and Home Safety

insurance, earthquake; adverse selection; capacity; catastrophic; claims; computer models; cost-based; deductible; government intervention; homeowners’ insurance; indemnity; liability; Natural Disaster Coalition; premium; probable maximum loss; proof of loss; reinsurance; reserves; risk; state department of insurance; surplus; underwriting

intensity; intensity scale

inventory, home

J

Jackson, Dave

Jacoby, Gordon

Jahns, Richard

Japan: civilization; government-sponsored earthquake research; tsunamis

Jibson, Randy

Johnson, Sam

Juan de Fuca Plate

Juan de Fuca Ridge

Juan de Fuca submarine canyon

K

Kagan, Yan

Kanamori, Hiroo

Karlin, Bob

Keefer, David

Keilis-Borok, V. I.

Kelsey, Harvey

Klamath Falls, Oregon, Earthquakes of 1993: landslides and rockfalls

Kobe, Japan, Earthquake of 1995

Krakatau, Indonesia, eruption and tsunami of 1883

Kulm, LaVerne

L

Lake Washington: trees beneath, 110, 111; sediment cores in, 112, 115

Landers, California, Earthquake of 1992, 56-57, 178-79

landslides, 110-12, 189. 191, 205-12, 246, 326, 343, 346, 350; induced by heavy rains, 211, 343; submarine, 63, 208, 209, 234. See also rockslides

lateral spread, 200-201, 203, 213, 343

Law of Large Numbers, 242, 245, 251. See also insurance

Liberty, Lee, 125

LiDAR mapping, 119, 120, 325

Lima, Peru, Earthquake of 1981, prediction, 159-60

Lindh, Allan, 180-81

liquefaction, 68, 125, 188, 190-91, 198-205, 212-13, 246, 268, 326, 343, 346, 350

lithosphere, 15, 20-21

Little Salmon Fault, 83, 150

loads, 261-62

Loma Prieta Earthquake, vii, 179, 181, 191-92, 201-2, 237, 245, 250, 267; attempts to forecast, 179-81; foreshocks, 181; liquefaction accompanying, 201, 202, 205

Long Beach, California, Earthquake of 1933, 294, 297, 321, 336, 348

Los Angeles Basin, 196-97

Ludwin, Ruth, 51, 118

M

Macelwane, James, 167

Mad River Fault, 83, 150

Madin, Ian, 124-25

magnitude, 42-43, 59; intensity magnitude, 51; moment magnitude, 44; surface-wave magnitude, 44. See also Richter magnitude

magnitude 8 vs. 9 at Cascadia, 72-77, 80, 82-83, 168-69, 175, 243

Malone, Steve, 128

Mantle, 15, 19-20, 22, 41

manufactured homes, 276, 277-78

maps: of earthquake hazard, see earthquake hazard maps; of tsunami hazard, see tsunami

marine platform. See wave-cut platform

masonry grades, 46-47. See also unreinforced masonry

maximum considered (credible) earthquake, 168-70, 172

Mazzotti, Stephan, 121

McCrory, Pat, 146

McKay, Mary, 62

McNeill, Lisa, 146

Mendocino Fracture Zone, 17, 23, 24, 26, 71, 83, 93, 94-95, 149; earthquakes in, 95-96; triple junction, 24-25, 26

Merten, Diane, 359-60

Mexico City Earthquake: of 1978, 361-62; of 1985, 193, 289

Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 16, 21, 24

Miller, Meghan, 57-58, 88

Milton-Freewater, Oregon, Earthquake of 1936, 133-34, 152

Minor, Rick, 67, 72, 82

Missoula floods, 10, 64, 123-25

Mitchell, Clifton, 75-76

mitigation, 300

mobile homes. See manufactured homes

Modoc Point, Oregon, rockfall, 138, 139

Mt. Mazama eruption and ash, 10, 64-66, 82, 86, 112-13

Mt. Rainier: mudflows, 119, 122; seismic zone, 122

Mt. St. Helens, 10, 14, 69, 122, 156; network, 313; rock avalanche and mudflow, 122, 208; seismic zone, 122-23, 125

Moho discontinuity, 15, 19, 20, 22

Mohoroviˇci´c, Andrija, 19

Mount Angel Fault, 125, 127-28, 152

N

Nábeˇlek, John, 128

Nankai, Japan, Subduction Zone, 75-77, 85, 162; Tokai prediction experiment, 162-63

NASA. See U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, 157, 160, 180

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 5000), 337

National Institute of Building Sciences, 305

National Science Foundation. See U.S. National Science Foundation

Native Americans, 10, 81-82, 89, 121, 334-35; Bridge of the Gods legend, 210-11; buried campsite, 72; Seattle Fault stories, 118

NAVSTAR satellites. See Global Positioning System

neighborhood plan, 334, 353-54

Nelson, Alan, 79, 81, 169

Nelson, Hans, 64-66

Neumann, Frank, 313

Newell, Chuck, 126

New Madrid, Missouri, Earthquake of 1990, prediction, 157

New Zealand: Earthquake Commission, 254; earthquake insurance, 254-55

Nisqually Earthquake of 2001, 47, 49-50

NOAA. See U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Nootka Fracture Zone, 23, 96, 106, 131

North America Plate, 16, 20-21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 93, 109

North Anatolian Fault, Turkey, 178

North Cascades Earthquake of 1872, 51, 131-33, 152

Northridge Earthquake of 1994, vii, 35-36, 47, 56, 108, 117, 159, 188-89, 237, 242, 245-46, 248, 250-51, 253; media coverage of, 317

Nuclear test-ban compliance, 297-98

O

Obermeier, Steve, 120, 201, 203-4

Olsen, Kim, 196-97

Olympic Mountains, 64, 70, 104

Olympic-Wallowa Lineament, 133-34, 135, 138, 152

Oregon Academy of Sciences, 3, 64, 72

Oregon-California Border Earthquake of 1873, 103

Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, 237, 325, 331, 340

Oregon Department of Transportation, 289, 344

Oregon Office of Emergency Management, 328-31

Oregon Natural Hazards Workgroup, 345-46

Oregon Seismic Safety Policy Advisory Commission, 330, 332

Oregon State University baccalaureate core curriculum, vii-viii

Oregon Structural Specialty Code, 336-37

Oroville, California, Earthquake of 1975, 299

Othello, Washington, earthquake swarm of 1987, 133

Owens Valley, California, Earthquake of 1872, 320-21

P

Pacific Geoscience Centre, 76, 87-88, 106, 109, 121, 131, 171-72, 314-15

Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network, 47-48, 306, 312-14, 344

Pacific Plate, 16-17, 21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 93

paleoseismology, 36-38, 59, 66, 89, 143, 162, 170, 174-75, 178, 182, 315

Palmdale Bulge, 299-300

PANGA. See Global Positioning System

Parkfield, California, forecast, 160-63, 173-78, 185, 357

Pasco Basin, Washington, 41, 135-38

Personius, Stephen, 169

Peru Earthquake and landslide of 1970, 189, 205, 208, 212

Peterson, Curt, 204

Petrolia, California, Earthquake of 1992, 84, 85, 93-94, 150, 234-35, 253

Pezzopane, Silvio, 143

Plafker, George, 3, 53

plate tectonics, 5, 9-10, 14-27, 54, 298, 303

Pleasant Valley, Nevada, Earthquake of 1915, 33

Pleistocene Epoch, 11-12, 63-64, 112, 123, 147, 203-4. See also glacial ice caps

Portland, Oregon, earthquakes of 1877 and 1962, 125-26

Portland Hills Fault, 123, 124, 125, 152, 185, 347, 355

Pratt, Tom, 125

prediction, earthquake, 156-60, 164-67, 186, 299-301

Presidential Major Disaster Declaration, 303-4, 330

Preston, Leiph, 105

Priest, George, 331

Pringle, Pat, 210

probability curve. See forecasting

psychological issues with earthquakes, 359

Puget Sound slab earthquakes, 202, 280; of 1939, 97, 107; of 1946, 97, 107; of 1949, 8, 43, 97-99, 107, 115-17, 169, 203, 279, 295, 313; of 1965, 8, 99-100, 203; lack of aftershocks, 107; landslides accompanying, 205, 206. See also Nisqually Earthquake, Satsop Earthquake

Q

Queen Charlotte Fault, 16, 27

R

radar interferometry, 57

radiocarbon dating, 12-13, 37-38, 73, 113, 115, 151, 203-4; reservoir correction, 13

Rasmussen, Norm, 313

Red Cross, 304

red-tagged and yellow-tagged buildings, 343, 353

Redwood Coast Earthquake Study Group, 345

Reid, Harry, 30-31, 52-54, 179, 181, 296

resonance (tuning fork) problem, 287-89

retrofit, 254, 263-64, 280-82, 292-94, 304, 355, 363; of historic buildings, 281-82, 286-87

Richter, Charles, 42-43, 156, 296: Richter magnitude scale, 43-44

risk. See hazard, insurance

Rivera Plate, 25, 26, 27

rock site, 192-93, 198

rockslides, earthquake-induced, 189, 206-9: Olympic Peninsula, 114, 115, 117, 206-7; Ribbon Cliffs, Washington, 132, 211. See also Modoc Point

Rogers, Garry, 81, 87-88, 105, 130

Rogue River Submarine Canyon, 65-66

S

San Andreas Fault, 9, 10, 16, 22, 23, 24-25, 26, 27, 30-31, 32, 33, 36-37, 52, 54-55, 83, 85, 89, 93-95, 162, 173-75, 178-81, 246, 296, 321; prehistoric earthquakes on, 37; 1857 Fort Tejon Earthquake, 9, 10, 32, 37, 173-74, 253, 357

San Fernando Earthquake of 1971. See Sylmar Earthquake

San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, 30, 44-45, 52, 173-74, 179, 191-92, 237-38, 296-97; insurance claims, 242-43, 250

sand dikes, 116, 200, 201, 203, 204; at Centralia, Washington, 120; sand boils and sand blows, 200-201

Santa Barbara, California, Earthquake of 1925, 297, 336

Satake, Kenji, 79-81, 85, 218, 225

Satsop, Washington, Earthquake of 1999, 100, 339, 355

Savage, Jim, 2, 53-54, 70, 72

schools: building codes for, 297, 336, 248; damage to, 97-100, 103, 130, 281, 293-94, 338-39; preparedness plans and retrofits, 333-34, 354-55

Schuster, Bob, 115, 206-7, 210

Schwartz, Dave, 174-75

Scotts Mills, Oregon, Earthquake of 1993, 38, 45, 48, 108, 127, 129-30, 152. 339, 349

SDART (Seattle) program, 269, 334

Seattle Fault, 35, 82, 115, 116-19, 169-70, 185, 279, 325: earthquake of A.D. 900-930, 10, 109, 111, 117-18, 120, 206-7, 243; seismic waves focused on, 197; tsunami from, 228

seiche, 238-39

seismic gap theory, 162

seismic safety element of general plan, 323

seismic sea wave. See tsunami

seismic waves, 38-43; attenuation, 51; P waves, 39, 40, 41, 51, 184, 362; S waves, 39, 40, 41, 362; surface vs. body waves, 39

seismic zones (for building codes), 336

seismicity, 89, 92, 95-96, 104, 170, 173-74

seismograph, 5, 41: Gonzaga College, 296; Wood-Anderson, 40, 43-44

Seismological Society of America, 297-98

ShakeMap, 47-48, 50

shear walls, 265-67, 282-84, 288

Sherrod, Brian, 120

Sherrod, Dave, 141

shoreline angle, 145-49, 146

side-scan sonar, 8, 61, 62

Simpson, Bob, 178

Sixes River, Oregon, 71, 86

slab earthquakes, 38, 96-107, 169: rare aftershocks, 103, 107

slip rate on faults, 36-37, 59

Slosson’s Law, 343

soft story, 266-67, 287-88

soil site, 192-93

soils engineer. See geotechnical engineering

SOSUS. See T-phase waves

South American tsunami earthquakes, 79

Southern California Earthquake Center, 307-8

Southern Whidbey Island Fault, 119, 173

South Sister volcano, uplift, 57

Sovanco Fracture Zone, 23, 92

space-based geodesy. See Global Positioning System

Spence, William, 159-60

Spokane, Washington, earthquake swarm of 2001, 133

spreading centers, 16-17, 27, 34, 92, 96, 109

Spring Break Quake. See Scotts Mills Earthquake

Standard Penetration Test, 200-201, 209

state of the art vs. standard of practice, 342-43, 347

Steens Mountain, Oregon, 34, 142

Stein, Ross, 178

Steinbrugge, Karl, 322

Stonewall Bank, Oregon, anticline, 149

strain, 29, 38

stress, 42

strong ground motion, 191-98

structural engineering. See earthquake engineering

Stuiver, Minze, 12

subduction zone, 21, 54, 162. See also Cascadia Subduction Zone

submarine canyon, 18, 63, 66, 87

submarine channel, 63, 82, 85-87, 89

Sylmar (San Fernando Valley) Earthquake of 1971, 34, 35-36, 54, 158-59, 194

syncline, 36

T

T-phase waves

Tacoma Fault

tidal wave. See tsunami

Toe Jam Hill Fault

Toppenish Ridge, Washington

transform fault

tree-ring dating

tsunami: before 1964; CREST; deep-sea pressure gauge; directivity of; effects of sea-floor configuration; hazard maps; in Hawaii; Japanese characters for; logo; long-period waves; National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program; of 1964; surfing a; sounds of. See also U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Tualatin Basin

turbidites

U

uncertainty principle

Uniform Building Code. See also building codes

United Policyholders, Inc.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. See U.S. National Geodetic Survey

U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000; Federal Insurance Administration; HAZUS; as part of Department of Homeland Security; Project Impact

U.S. Geological Survey: Advanced National Seismic System; external grants program; Puget Sound-Portland program

U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Jet Propulsion Lab; Earth Systems Enterprise. See also Global Positioning System

U.S. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program

U.S. National Geodetic Survey

U.S. National Geophysical Data Center

U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology

U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): National Undersea Research Program; seafloor mapping; tsunami warning systems

U.S. National Science Foundation: earthquake engineering research centers; Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation; Ocean Sciences Directorate

U.S. Navy

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

U.S. Small Business Administration

U.S. Weather Bureau

University of California, Berkeley seismic network

University Navstar Consortium

unreinforced masonry (URM)

utility lines

V

VAN prediction method

Vancouver Island, earthquake of 1918; earthquake of 1946

Vere-Jones, D.

Very Long Baseline Interferometry

W

Wang, Kelin

Washington Department of Transportation

Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources

Washington Growth Management Act

Washington State Emergency Management Division

water heater, strapping

wave amplitude: frequency; period; wavelength

wave-cut platform

Wecoma Fault

Weldon, Ray

Wentworth, Carl

Werner, Ken

West Point, Seattle, trench

Western Canada Deformation Array. See Global Positioning System

Western States Seismic Policy Council

Whitcomb, Jim

Willapa Bay, Niawiakum Estuary of: active syncline

Wilson, Joseph

Wong, Ivan

Woodburn, Oregon, earthquake swarm of 1990

Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

WWSSN

X

Y

Yakima Fold Belt

Yamaguchi, Dave

Yount, Jim

Z

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